White Papers

Here are some documents and links for further reading on the foundations of X-System.

Please click on the files for a summary and download

IEEE Paper, September 2020

Northumbria University/NHS TEWV. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, X-System was invited to create playlists for the NHS Recovery College Online website.

HRV Paper

Northumbria University, 2019. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a useful measure of valence in music, that is to say how positive or negative the emotions of the listener are.

Sanskrit Chant Pilot Study, 2018

Tamil Nadu, 2018. X-System is designed to be a universal musical tool, capable of predicting neurophysiological responses to music in all cultures.

Predictions of Arousal and Valence Paper, Spring 2019

Tamil Nadu, 2019. In this study, validation of X-System valence predictions was carried out in an RCT, once again, in a non-Western culture.

1611 Summary of X-System Croydon Trial

Queen Mary University, Imperial College, The Royal College of Music 2017. The earliest known reference to entrainment is Christiaan Huygens’ description of two pendulum clocks ‘‘falling into synchrony’’.

Music as an aid for postoperative recovery in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The Lancet, August 2015. A systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether music improves recovery after surgical procedures.